Psychology 4102 (Carey) Sample Test II

Multiple Guess (2 points each). Select the BEST answer. Good luck!

1) The dramatic progress of modern genetics in finding the location of genes
for Mendelian disorders has been made possible largely through

a) better computer algorithms for linkage analysis

b) the gathering of very large kindreds

c) ability to detect a large number of marker loci

d) more exact mathematical models for linkage analysis

e) better diagnosis

2) For intelligence, the correlation for identical twins raised together is about

a) .10

b) .20

c) .50

d) .80

e) 1.00

3) The statistic most often used to measure the extent to which pairs of relatives
are similar for a trait is

a) mean

b) variance

c) validity coefficient

d) correlation coefficient

e) standard deviation

4) All of the following are true about genes EXCEPT

a) Genes are linearly arranged on chromosomes

b) Genes that are close together on the same chromosome rarely recombine

c) Genes that are very close together on a chromosome tend to be inherited
as a unit

d) Genes that are far away but on the same chromosome tend to recombine

5) An enzyme that recognizes a certain sequence of DNA and cuts the DNA at
that sequence is called a

a) polyemerase

b) clevage enzyme

c) disjunction

d) restriction enzyme

e) reductase

6) The extent to which genetic individual differences contribute to phenotypic
individual differences in a trait is defined as

a) adaptation

b) heritability

c) allelic variability

d) fitness

e) environmentability

7) Genes on the same chromosome are said to be linked if

a) their alleles assort independently

b) their alleles are heterogeneous

c) their alleles do not assort independently

d) they create new alleles

e) they contribute to meiosis

8) Map Distance refers to

a) the relative distance between genes on a chromosome

b) the chromosomes that exchange parts during meiosis

c) the percentage of recombination

d) a and c

e) a and b

9) The most common cause of Down's syndrome is

a) translocation

b) nondisjunction

c) disjunction

d) mosaicism

e) Somatic hybrids

10) All of the following are characteristics of Turner's Syndrome EXCEPT

a) causes general retardation

b) is associated with emotional stability

c) is associated with reduced spatial ability

d) is often characterized by short stature

e) effects only women

11) Among individuals institutionalized with mental retardation, the most
frequent chromosomal anomaly is

a) 45, XO

b) trisomy 22

c) trisomy 21

d) 47, XXY

e) 47, XYY

12) The major technique used in molecular biology to separate molecules
according to molecular weight is


b) weightability

c) PCR

d) electolysis

e) electrophoresis

I. Define the following terms: (3 points each)

1) Polymorphism


3) Variable Number of Tandem Repeats

4) PCR

II. Define heritability, keeping in mind the factors discussed in lecture. Then list and describe the characteristics of heritability that are often associated with it but are in actuality NOT a part of the definition. (6 points)

III. What phenotype has the XYY syndrome been associated with in the past and what is the current state of knowledge about that phenotype? (6 points)

IV. Give approximate figures for the heritability, common environmentability and unique environmentability for intelligence. (6 points)

V. Suppose that genetic individual differences contribute to 37% of the phenotypic variance and that unique environment contributes to 56% of the variance. Give the expected corelations for the following types of relatives: (8 points)

1) MZ twins raised together

2) MZ twins raised apart

3) Full siblings raised together

4) Full siblings raised apart

VI. A researcher interested in the genetics of antisocial behavior performed a twin study. Two phenotypes were used for study. The first was a count of the number of violent crimes the person reported (i.e., assault, battery, robbery, manslaughter, rape, etc.). The second was the non-violent or property crimes reported (theft, forgery, vandalism, etc.). Here are the data:

Rmz Rdz

Violent .18 .07

Nonviolent .63 .45

What would you conclude about the genetic and environmental architecture behind violent versus nonviolent offending?

The correlation between alcohol use in adoptive parents and in their adoptive offspring is .08. The correlation between alchol use in biological parents and the children they gave up for adoption is .21.

1) Calculate the heritability

2) What would you predict for the correlation for alcohol use between parents and offspring when the parents raise their own offspring?

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