1994-2001 current publications

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1998; 50:27-37.

Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders.

Crowley, T. J., Macdonald, M. J., Whitmore, E. A., & Mikulich, S. K.

The patients for this study were 165 male and 65 female 13-19-year-olds referred for substance and conduct problems. The results show that most patients claimed serious problems from cannabis, and 78.6% met standard adult criteria for cannabis dependence. Two-thirds of cannabis-dependent patients reported withdrawal. Progression from first to regular cannabis use was as rapid as tobacco progression, and more rapid than that of alcohol, suggesting that cannabis is a reinforcer. The data indicate that for adolescents with conduct problems cannabis use is not benign, and that the drug potently reinforces cannabis taking, producing both dependence and withdrawal.

Division of Substance Dependence