Archives of General Psychiatry, 2003; 60:1256-1264.
Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and
problem use in adolescents.
Rhee, S.H., Hewitt, J.K., Young, S.E., Corley, R.P., Crowley, T.J.,
& Stallings, M.C.
This sibling/twin/adoption study of substance initiation, use, and problem
use replicated findings from twin studies of adult substance use: there
is moderate to substantial heritability for substance use and substance
use disorders in this sample. Problem use is more heritable than initiation.
The significance of environmental influences shared only by twin pairs on
tobacco initiation, alcohol use, and any drug use suggests the influences
of peers, accessibility of substances, and sibling interaction.